PEP 486 – Make the Python Launcher aware of virtual environments
- Paul Moore <p.f.moore at gmail.com>
- Standards Track
- Python-Dev message
The Windows installers for Python include a launcher that locates the correct Python interpreter to run (see PEP 397). However, the launcher is not aware of virtual environments (virtualenv  or PEP 405 based), and so cannot be used to run commands from the active virtualenv.
This PEP proposes making the launcher “virtualenv aware”. This means that when run without specifying an explicit Python interpreter to use, the launcher will use the currently active virtualenv, if any, before falling back to the configured default Python.
Windows users with multiple copies of Python installed need a means of
selecting which one to use. The Python launcher provides this
facility by means of a
py command that can be used to run either a
configured “default” Python or a specific interpreter, by means of
command line arguments. So typical usage would be:
# Run the Python interactive interpreter py # Execute an installed module py -m pip install pytest py -m pytest
When using virtual environments, the
py launcher is unaware that a
virtualenv is active, and will continue to use the system Python. So
different command invocations are needed to run the same commands in a
# Run the Python interactive interpreter python # Execute an installed module (these could use python -m, # which is longer to type but is a little more similar to the # launcher approach) pip install pytest py.test
Having to use different commands is error-prone, and in many cases
the error is difficult to spot immediately. The PEP proposes making
py command usable with virtual environments, so that the first
form of command can be used in all cases.
virtualenv and the core
venv module set an environment
VIRTUAL_ENV when activating a virtualenv. This PEP
proposes that the launcher checks for the
variable whenever it would run the “default” Python interpreter for
the system (i.e., when no specific version flags such as
are used) and if present, run the Python interpreter for the
virtualenv rather than the default system Python.
The “default” Python interpreter referred to above is (as per PEP 397)
either the latest version of Python installed on the system, or
a version configured via the
py.ini configuration file. When the
user specifies an explicit Python version on the command line, this
will always be used (as at present).
Impact on Script Launching
As well as interactive use, the launcher is used as the Windows file
association for Python scripts. In that case, a “shebang” (
line at the start of the script is used to identify the interpreter to
run. A fully-qualified path can be used, or a version-specific Python
python2, or even
python3.5), or the generic
python, which means to use the default interpreter.
The launcher also looks for the specific shebang line
#!/usr/bin/env python. On Unix, the
env program searches for a
$PATH and runs the command so located. Similarly, with
this shebang line, the launcher will look for a copy of
on the user’s current
%PATH% and will run that copy.
As activating a virtualenv means that it is added to
special handling is needed to run scripts with the active virtualenv -
they just need to use the
#!/usr/bin/env python shebang line,
exactly as on Unix. (If there is no activated virtualenv, and no
PATH, the launcher will look for a default
Python exactly as if the shebang line had said
The PEP makes no attempt to promote the use of the launcher for
running Python on Windows. Most existing documentation assumes the
python as the command to run Python, and (for example)
pip to run an installed Python command. This documentation is not
expected to change, and users who choose to manage their
environment variable can continue to use this form. The focus of this
PEP is purely on allowing users who prefer to use the launcher when
dealing with their system Python installations, to be able to continue
to do so when using virtual environments.
A patch implementing the proposed behaviour is available at http://bugs.python.org/issue23465
This document has been placed in the public domain.
Last modified: 2022-01-21 11:03:51 GMT